COMPLETE COURSE HAS ONLY 2 SEMESTERS-
EACH 6 (SIX) MONTHS
FEE : Rs.
50,000/- (Fifty thousand only) Per Semester.
3,000/- Per month (Three thousand only) extra if needed.
2. DIPLOMA IN IMMUNO
TECHNOLOGY - 2009-2010
- Immunotechnology has grown to encompass many fields such as allergy, clinical
immunology, immunochemistry, immunopathology, immunopharmacology, tumor immunology and transplantation immunology.
Immunology has always depended upon and stimulated the
application of technology such as the use of microscopy,
electrophoresis, radiolabelling, Immunofluorescence,
recombinant DNA, transgenic animals, monoclonal antibodies, animal
cell/tissue culture, vaccine development and plantibodies production.
The modern medicine is the translation of
advances in immunochemistry and immunobiology
into diagnostic and therapeutic procedures, that will be useful and very
effective in the generation of many skilled job opportunities in all the above
Paper I General Paper
I : Life Skills &
01) a. External and internal influences in ones life.
02) a . Meaning and process of coping
b. Mechanism of coping
c. Coping with physical change and sexuality
a. Coping with
b. Coping with
anger, criticism , failure
b. Goal setting
a. Problem solving
b. Decision making
a. Time Management
b. Team building
a. Inter personal
elements of communication
Expression. Listening and responding
Communication and Group discussion
Behaviour by Jit S.Chandan
Behaviours by M.M.Varma and Adarval
How to be your
own best friend by Paul Mauck
: Spoken English:
Introducing oneself Inviting, someone Making requests Offering help
Seeking permission Asking for advice
Expressing gratitude Asking about remembering- persuading
- complimenting / Congratulating Expressing sympathy complaining
Apologizing Making suggestions Warning someone Starting
conversation with a stranger Leaving someone for a short time Ending a
conversation Asking for information Asking for someones Opinion
Asking if someones sure Asking someone to say something again checking
that you have understood Asking whether someone knows Asking about
possibility Asking about preference Asking if someone
is able to do something Describing something Some useful
expressions. Building Vocabulary: One word substitution
- Synonyms - Homophones Odd man out.
Identification of tenses and agreement of verbs. Statements, Negatives,
Interrogatives and Question tags. Rectification of errors in articles.
Propositions and adverbs
Comprehension telegraphic Message.
01) Spoken English for you
Emerald Publishers Authors:
English - A Self Learing Guide to Conversation Practice
Authors: V.Sasikumar, P.V.Dhamija
Computer Usage and Applications:
to Computer: Generation and History of Computers -Characteristics of
Computer Digital Computer - Analog -
Computer Hybrid Computer.
Classification of Digital Computer: Micro Computer Mini Computer
Devices: Keyboard, Mouse, Light pen Output Devices: Monitor,
Classification of Monitors, Printers, Classification of printers Study
03) Hardware, Software, farmware, parts of CPU: ALU Control Unit
Software: Interpreter, Assembler, Compilers Operating Systems: DOS
Booting System Internal and
External Commands Introduction to High-level languages.
05) Origin of Internet Appanet MODEM ISP (VSNL)
Upload, Download. E-mail: Origin of Worldwide web (WWW)
Books for reference:
Introduction to Computers by Radhakrishnan.
Fundamentals of Computers by V. Raja Raman.
2: Immune system
Unit I: Types of Immunity
Antigen: Essential feature of antigens - Factors that influence
Antigenicity Epitopes - Haptens
barriers (Lysozyme, Interferons)
and Phagocytic barriers (PMN & Macrophage)
created by Inflammatory response.
of immune system (B & T cells)
(Antigen presenting cells)
of Humoral and Cell mediated Immune response
Unit II: Anatomy of Lymphoid Organs.
Source of lymphoid cells Bone marrow
b) Primary lymphoid Organs
1.Thymus Thymocytes - Skin - Bursa of Fabricius -
Secondary lymphoid organs
Lymph nodes Structures Spleen - Bone marrow
Unit III: Immunoglobulin Structure and Function
structure and functions of Immunoglobulin
- IgM -
IgD - IgE
IV: Memory cells
of Memory cells and Plasma cells
T & B cells
Unit V: Lymphocyte Differentiation
T lymphocytes B lymphocytes
Paper 3: Positive and Negative Antigen
and Antibody interaction
I: Biology of complement system
Definition of complement - Components of complement - Types of
Complement Pathways Classical Alternate - Regulation of
complement system - Biological constituents of complement activation - cell lysis - Inflammatory response Opsonisation- Viral
Solubilisation of Immune complexes - Complement deficiencies - Structure and Function of MHC I & II. Structure - Gene
arrangement Polymorphism - Function
Unit II : a). Antigen recognition and presentation
Endogenous Cytosolic pathway - Exogenous
Endocytic pathway - Self MHC restriction of T-cells - Cells that
function in Antigen presentation TAPS Transporter Associated with
b). Cellular Mediated Immunity
Helper T cells - Effector T-cell function -
Complement Mediated cell lysis
Unit III: Hypersensitivity reactions
1. Type I Hypersensitivity or Anaphylactic reaction
Phenomenon of Anaphylaxis - Atopic allergy - Food
2. Type II Hypersensitivity or ADCH
Transfusion reaction - Rh factor - Organ transplants
3. Type III Hypersensitivity or Immune complexes
Arthus reaction - Reaction to internal and inhaled antigen - Serum
Type IV Hypersensitivity or Cell mediated immunity.
IV: Autoimmune Disorders
1.Scope of Autoimmune diseases
2.Physiology of autoimmunity
3.Types of Autoimmunity
a. Organ specific autoimmune disease (Myasthenia
b. Systemic autoimmune disease (Systemic
4.Mechanism for induction of autoimmunity
V a). Tissue Grafting
Genetic control of transplantation - Mechanism of
graft rejection -
Prevention of graft rejection
i. Tissue typing ii. General immunosuppressive
therapy iii. Specific immunosuppressive therapy
b). Transplantation strategies
c). Graft Vs Host Disease
1.Activation and Proliferation of cells
Analytical methods of immune system
Isolation - Sonication
Lyophilization Thermal extraction methods TCA method
Ethanol extraction Triton x 100 extractions isolation of
membrane bound proteins cytosolic proteins flagellar proteins
Purification and characterization of various antigens
- Ammonium sulphate liquefaction salting in salting out
Chromatographic techniques gel exclusion ion exchange NMR
- Haptens from pathogens and other biological molecules.
Biophysical and chemical and affinity separation
methods Paper chromatography Thin layer chromatography - HPLC
GLC Electrophoretic techniques SDS- PAGE cellulose
strip electrophoresis - Centrifugation density gradient
centrifugation Isopycnic Ultracentrifugation.
Production of antibodies adjuvants Freunds
incomplete & complete adjuvants Selection of experimental
animals and their uses Restrain and handling of experimental
animals - vaccination schedule.
Purification of antibodies - Quantification for
Immunoglobulin by RID, EID and Nephlometry Specificity of
antibodies CIE and WB methods.
Monoclonal antibody production
Hybridoma and monoclonal antibody production : Animal
Cell cultures cell line maintenance cell fusion myeloma
cells technique of monoclonal antibody production - genetically
engineered antibodies fused hybridomas.
assays Mancinis single dimension assay ODD RID
Direct agglutination Indirect (passive) agglutination hemagluttination
Coombs test Bentonite Flocculation test
Rose-Waaler test - Macroscopic slide agglutination microscopic
agglutination test (MAT), latex agglutination assays RIA - ELISA
Biotin-avidin enhanced immunoassays - Complement fixation test;
assessment of immune complexes in tissues.
Application of monoclonal antibodies in biomedical research
Enumeration of human lymphocyte sub population Cell depletion
Cell isolation Probing function of cell surface molecules
diagnosis in cancer antitumor therapy by drug delivery system -
imaging nephlometric assays -
analysis of complex antigen mixture purification of antigens
analysis of embryological relationship monoclonal mutants.
Human monoclonal antibodies Human antimouse antibodies
MHC linked target of cytotoxic T cells -
Catalytic antibodies HLA antigen detection viral
detection and sub typing parasitic identification Immuno suppression
- fertility control.
6: Cell mediated immunity assay and application
Purification of mononuclear cells from peripheral
blood - Isolation and characterization of T-cell subsets Helper suppressor
cell ratio E Rosette-forming cells human T cell
specific markers T cell subsets Production of T cell
antibodies detection of T cell antigens with specific antisera -
Lymphocyte assays - B-cells and macrophages Human B cell
specific markers Surface immunoglobulins Cytoplasmic
Fluorescent activated cell sorter (FACS) cell
selection by FACS Immunofluorescence techniques Direct test
with labeled antibodies Indirect test for antibodies High
resolution with the confocal microscope Flow cytometry Flow
cytofluorimetry - Mitogen and antigen induced lympho proliferation
Mixed lymphocyte reaction mixed lymphocyte
culture - Cell mediated
lympholysis Clinical application of T & B cell assays - Assessment of
delayed hypersensitivity reaction - Macrophage culture -
Assay for macrophage activation -
enumeration of macrophages macrophage role in host defense,
human immunodeficiency virus, interferon gamma, interleukin 2,
multiple sclerosis, phagocytic responses, secretory activity -
dendritic cells - Isolation and role in human.
In-situ & In-vivo characterization of cells from
tissues : Nucleic acid probes hybridization assays Southern
blot Generation of T-cell clones - Gene Rearrangement assay for
lymphocyte clonality In-situ hybridization target
amplification technique (PCR) methods of analyzing RNA - HLA
Vaccine development technology
Biology & Assay of cytokines : Interleukin 1
and tumor necrosis factor properties of human interleukins and
other immunoregulatory cytokines target cells IL-1 and TNF -
actions of IL-1 and TNF on hematopoietic and lymphoid and non-lymphoid
cells and tissues IL-1,TNF & their inhibitors as therapeutic
agents IL-2 receptor and signal Transduction role of
IL-2in human immune system IL-6 and related cytokines
antiviral interferons immune interferons Transforming growth
Vaccine technology including DNA vaccines: Acquired
memory experiment vaccines in development malaria cholera
TB Schistosomiasis Adjuvant Killed organisms as
vaccine Live attenuated organisms as vaccines Subunit vaccines
protein vaccines DNA vaccines - naked gene acting as a vaccine
Identification of T & B epitopes for vaccine
development autoimmunity T down regulation Original
antigenic sin - current vaccines and their development.
Immunotechnology and infectious diseases: Diagnosis of
infectious hepatitis infectious mononucleosis immunoblastic
reaction infectious rhinitis infectious syndrome infective
endocarditis immune therapies.
Immunity and genetic engineering in transgenic
animals immunoassays for bacteriophage λ library screening
other gene libraries screening screening for monoclonal
antibody production - Immunoscreening of recombinant library.
Immunity to pathogens
and raising Polyclonal antibodies
Mancinis single dimension diffusion test
of hybridoma and monoclonal antibodies
Culture and maintenance of myeloma cell lines
B cell and T cell isolation
Monoclonal antibody in biomedical research practice
Application of human monoclonal antibodies
T cell cloning
Role in immunological reactions and applications in vaccine development.
1. Immunology I.Roitt, J.Brestoff and D.K.Male
2. Medical Immunology Gabriel Virella
3. Basic & Clinical Immunology - Daniel
P.Stites., Abba I.Terr & Tristram G. Parslow
4. Diagnostic Immunology Keren & Warren
5. Principles of Immunology I.Roitt
6. Immunological Techniques D.M.Weir
7. Current protocols in immunology 3 Volumes
Wiley Pub. 1994.
8. Immunology Ian R. Tizard
9. Immunology Janis Kuby
FEE : Rs.
50,000/- (Fifty thousand only) Per Semester.
3,000/- Per month (Three thousand only) extra if needed.